Insulation insulation for roofs
If it is assumed that the attic will be used as an attic, it makes sense to hold on to the roof insulation, which will serve as protection from the outside air without passing it into the interior room. In this case, the insulating material should also not allow moisture on the outside and outputting still moisture penetrated into the room.
In the living room the moisture contained in the form of steam, which creates breathing, as well as in the process of bathing and cooking. Due to the pressure drop, which is formed between the interior space and the outer space, the steam ejected into the atmosphere through the roof. Here there is one rule: the amount of moisture in the room is directly proportional to temperature, ie the higher the temperature, so, consequently, more moisture. When the temperature falls, air density decreases, because air can no longer hold the most moisture. And there is subsidence of moisture in the form of water. This occurs when the steam contacts the cold roof. And this leads to the destruction of the roof. That's why one of the main requirements that apply to the insulation of the roof components, is that on their outer side to be sealed and steam waterproofing layer mountable on rafters.
The two-level internal ventilation does not allow the roof to pass moisture and facilitate its removal. The location of the first layer should be a ventilation space between the waterproofing layer and roof covering, and the second - between the insulation and waterproofing. To ventilate, one must have ventilation holes on the slope of the roof, and slit to drain the air - on the ridge.
There are three types of insulation: under the rafters, the rafters and between the rafters. Under rafters insulation should be placed, if the rafters is not enough deep, in order to place a thermal insulation layer on the roof. The most lightweight version kryshi- insulation is laying between the rafters. When laying the insulation is necessary to make sure that there was no roof sections that are left without insulation (especially joints with walls, window frames, door frame, chimney and so on. D.). The upper side of the roof insulation must be at least 2 cm. from waterproofing to allow for ventilation.
Sealing layer It must be stretched so as not to sag, or the size of the space for ventilation is reduced, making it impossible adequate ventilation.
If the insulation of the roof is used mineral wool, it should not be forgotten that it is at the end of stacking can increase in volume by 10% to 30%. Always remember this and leave more space for ventilation.
There are also cases where the rafters are deep enough to put heat-insulating layer for a pitched roof. In such a case, can only build them with the boards and beams. If, on the basis of some reasons, this is not possible, it is possible to heat-insulating layer divided into two parts, the first to put between the rafters, and the second of them.
Insulation insulation for walls
Today the problems of heat savings in the process of construction of new buildings and renovation of existing ones has received increased attention. Russia has also taken appropriate legal and technical documents, which are aimed at an effective solution to the problem of energy conservation. The documents set requirements, according to which the single-layer cladding of traditional brick, concrete and wood can no longer provide the necessary thermal resistance. The desired effect can only be achieved if the multilayer erected cladding, which is the basis of superior quality insulating material, for example polystyrene.
The building is a major source of heat loss - this window. The heat flow, which passes through the wall 5 times less than the specific heat flux through the double window. But given the fact that the area of all windows in a normal residential building is equal to 15-20% of the total area of the walls, in result is that the amount of heat loss through the walls of a much greater amount of heat loss through window.
The temperature in the apartment building, the comfort and convenience of its inhabitants depend upon what materials were chosen for insulation. Wall insulation should be carried out comprehensively, both outside the building and inside. Modern insulating materials also have good sound insulating characteristics, is reliable, water-resistant, fire-resistant and environmentally friendly. External and internal wall insulation - it is also good for energy savings.
What kind of materials to choose to spend a good thermal insulation? The first condition: a heat-insulating material must have such properties as the liquid absorption and holding it in the pores. Also the material should be non-hygroscopic, that is able to absorb liquid in vapor form. Thus, the insulation material is protected from moisture, both in storage and in use. And this is very important, because the insulation can affect the moisture of all sorts and groundwater.
thermal insulation It must also possess this property as breathability. With this property, it can pass air and gases. The more porous the material, the higher the level it breathability. Cold air moving through the wall of the heat insulating layer, heat loss increases considerably. Therefore, please note that if moisture gets inside the insulation material, its permeability will be reduced.
No less important feature is the thermal insulation of external walls thermal conductivity. The porosity of the material determines its ability to conduct heat. This factor also affected by temperature and humidity insulation materials for walls where the use of polystyrene acceptable.
As for the thermal, it depends on the rate at which the temperature changes of any type of insulation. This factor indicates the rate at which the temperature can be distributed in the extrusion heat-insulating material such as expanded polystyrene.
Insulation insulation for walls
Thermal insulation of the house and its components will not only create comfort in the room, but also to preserve the integrity of the building structure. The room is also in need of insulation partitions.
Baffles have several functions, visually isolated rooms, they provide thermal insulation, soundproofing and the like. D. Internal partitions, first of all, are insulated in order to ensure sound insulation. The partitions are of two main types. Namely, the partition distinguish standard and with increased sound insulation.
Carcass septum operate with a wooden beam, the step of axes is equal to the width of a stone or mineral boards. Wherein the timber should not be wider than 50 mm. Thickness timber must be equal to the insulating material. Typically, the thickness is 100 mm. More durable option - is to use a metal profile, which has a similar width. After mineral reinforced plate in guides decorative plating is performed. For this purpose a gypsum board, whose thickness is 12.5 mm. The process of construction of double-sided baffle ends sewing construction.
If it is assumed construction of the partition, which should be enhanced sound insulation, it is necessary to provide that the consumption of materials increased two-fold. If elevated mineral frame, as in this case, it is necessary to establish a mineral boards. Sewing only the outside. Plasterboard attached where under assumed formation surface further painting or pasting. And the need to have two layers of drywall.
Be sure to leave 20 mm. from the back side to provide an air gap, and to erect the same construction. It turns out the design, reminiscent of a dual-layer sandwich, which shares a small air gap. Since the structure "breathes", it is not necessary to carry out a vapor barrier.
It is possible to use gypsum and gypsum boards, as an independent isolation or together with zvukoteploizoliruyuschim materials, which is made of mineral wool. As for the sound insulation, the maximum effect can be achieved if the partition will be with each side of two sheets of drywall, between which is a layer of mineral wool (50mm thickness).
Light fireproof interior can be created by use of mineral fiber plates from basalt or glass fibers (glass wool). After all, the mineral wool - modern insulation, is the property withstand fire, using it is possible to quickly eliminate the source of fire. As confirmed by numerous tests, insulation made of modern materials - a reliable assistant in every household. You can be sure that in the modern insulating materials are not rodents zavedutsya without any mold or mildew. Thanks to the easy, reliable, "soft" partitions living inhabitants of the house will be much more comfortable.
Insulation thermal insulation for floors
cold floor problem most often occurs in people living on the ground floor of an apartment house, and the owners of country houses. The question of warming the floor is also concerned about those who are faced with the need to make a summer country house in a full-fledged housing or unheated loggia in a full room.
Before you start to warm the floor, you need to ask the question, "what is the optimal height of the floor?". This question is important because it affects the choice of materials and way of warming. If you decide to insulate the floor in the apartment and pick it up is not possible, it is necessary to dismantle the entire floor up to the floors, and then install a new one.
You can make the floor with or without a crate. In the case of using the battens, the floor is obtained having a smaller thickness and a smaller load on the overlap. This embodiment is ideal for thermal insulation lodzhiy. At the same time, these floors are cheap and do not require a long time to dry, as is the case with concrete screed.
Wooden lattice mounted on the monolith overlap and thermally insulating material (e.g., Penoplex polystyrene, foam variety, or nobasil rockwool). Set top plate (plywood, chipboard) to the load is distributed correctly. A plate is placed directly on the floor.
If the lift floor is not possible, you can use the option "floating floors". Their main part - roll or a sheet jam. It can be laid on him can be laid on a conventional floor even if the floor is covered with linoleum or carpeting. In terms of "floating floor" is as follows: PE film (if there is stacking "floating floor" for concrete) or sheet roll stopper (not fit if the "floating floor" is located on a carpeted floor), a decorative plug (it is applied or the varnish layer vinyl).
If it is necessary to insulate the floor with a concrete base at the cottage or country house, it would be appropriate to do on the floor concrete screed, which, while acting as a good thermal insulation, would be divided load. In such a case must be made between the insulation and waterproofing concrete, which will provide a PE film.
Paul would then be as follows: PE film is laid on a base of concrete, then placed on the film insulation (e.g., nobasil), and put on top separated from the next layer of concrete concrete screed PE film; well and the flooring is installed on a concrete screed. PE film under a heater is used only when there is a ground under the concrete base.
These were the most common options for insulating floors. But, of course, there are other options, but most of them - one way or another, represented a repetition. Therefore, in order not to be mistaken with the choice, it is necessary to think about the way that best meets your needs and capabilities, as well as to take into account all the features of the structure.
Insulation insulation for basements
The basis of any home is the foundation, so its fate depends on how well designed it, as well as the quality of the performed construction works of thermal insulation.
Very often, the foundation is aligned with the basement wall. To ensure safe operation, it is necessary to provide thermal insulation of external structures, which are in contact with the ground. The need for thermal insulation caused by the fact that part of the house through the underground heat is lost, the amount of which sometimes amounts to 20% of the total heat loss. If the basement is heated, then, thanks to the thermal insulation of the basement walls will be protected from freezing, will be prevented condensation, dampness, and as a result, the appearance of mold.
It should be noted that insulate the underground part of the house, it becomes possible to eliminate or to minimize the impact that the forces of frost heaving forces of frost on the foundation heaving. This is extremely important in the construction of cottages in the suburbs, where about 80% of soils are heaving. When they freeze, then to the foundation, which is in the ground, begins the impact forces of frost heaving, which leads to damage, as the grounds and building envelopes.
In order to prevent moisture and insulation slabs in order to avoid dampness, fungus and mildew, it is necessary that the underground cellars and well ventilated. To provide ventilation, to arrange a special air holes and openings through which will occur removal of water vapor together with the ventilation air.
At first glance it may seem, to put it mildly, inappropriate to insulate the walls in unheated basement. In fact, everything looks different. Primer 5-10C in Moscow region has a temperature in the region of 2 m. From the surface. That is why, thanks to well done insulation of basement walls, winter can be kept in the basement of 5-10C temperature, and it does not require additional heat.
Heat loss occurs largely through basement floors, which are located above cellars and basements, which is usually not heated. In this case, the quality of insulation caused not only by spending on heating the whole house, but also the opportunity to create a comfortable environment. If the stack are in prolonged contact with a cold surface, the likely total body hypothermia. And this will inevitably lead to the emergence of all sorts of colds. Therefore, the temperature difference between the floor and the air temperature should not exceed 2C. This requirement becomes possible only in the presence of high-quality thermal insulation basement, which meets all the requirements prescribed by the present regulations documents. In this regard, during construction or repair issue insulation ceilings of the first floor you must pay special attention to, and make sure that it has a very high heat-shielding characteristics.