The most common type of roof - pointed. Like the roof is not afraid of the load caused by precipitation - rain and snow. A mauerlat - is something that, in turn, protects against stress, can lead to the destruction of home walls.
Anyone who has never faced with the device of the roof, and can not know what lies under this term. In this article, the reader learns that the same is mauerlat as it is attached, what problems it has spawned.
Mauerlat called the foundation of the roof, something on which it rests. This foundation consists of beams, boards, enabling reliable interconnect walls and rafters.
Its main tasks are:
- It connects the roof to the walls.
- This design distributes the point load on the walls, thus preventing their deformation.
Our latitude are characterized by loss of significant amounts of snow in the winter. Naturally, on the roof are formed with drifts, with significant weight and pose a danger to the integrity of the construction. To avoid the destruction of the house, use of 4- and 2-pitched roofs.
On a sloping roof snow weighs not so much. When the pressure becomes horizontal, bursting, have effects on the walls in places where the rafters are attached, and they (the wall) after some time may be damaged. Mauerlat task is pressure distribution and preventing damage.
When you need to use mauerlat
Wooden frame construction in this design does not need, it replaces them top of the wall. In the case where for the construction of buildings used concrete blocks, aerated concrete, brick, wall necessarily strengthened through mauerlat.
He made mostly of wood. This is due to the fact that the tree is convenient to install, it is inexpensive and can boast of environmental friendliness. In that case, if the roof undergoes considerable load (in industrial buildings of large size), is applied metal mauerlat.
To construct possesses sufficient strength, use solid beams. If the length of the wall does not allow this, the individual elements are joined together, and thereby to obtain the desired length.
Connect the beam in the middle of the walls - it is necessary to ensure that all items to be as long as possible. For example, when the size of the walls 8 meters and the initial length of the beams of 6 m is better to take two 4-meter beam. Use of two beams 2 and 6 m - not desirable.
For manufacturing mauerlat taken beam width which is 1/3 of the width of the main wall. Usually this figure is fifteen - twenty centimeters. The large width is not desirable - the design does not feel any stronger, more than that, it will be more pressure on the walls; also too heavy beams inconvenient to install.
As it is well known, wood rot. To protect the structure against moisture, waterproofing (roofing paper) is used. A "resistance" to different pests will give an antiseptic, which will need to process the material.
The beams should be located so that they and the outer part of the wall shared by 5 or more centimeters.
How attached mauerlat
The most simple method - the use of metal wire.
The thickness of the wire must be greater than 5 mm. She laid in brickwork. Bookmark depth of 5-6 series. Concerning the length, it must exceed mauerlat thickness so that then could twist the wire ends.
The wire is threaded into the drilled holes in the beams. They have to be paired; they should divide twenty-five - thirty centimeters. The hole pushes the ends of the wire, after which they are tightly braided. The number of twists can be any (or however it should be equal or exceed the number of rafters).
In addition, mauerlat can be fixed by means of special pins - L-shaped pins of metal. Also to pin 1 can be welded side plate of a certain size (5x5 cm).
Bookmark studs in the brickwork is done on a 45-centimeter depth. In this case the studs are arranged "upside down" - so to or from a metal plate, or a short "leg" of the letter "D" at the bottom. mauerlat pins is longer than the thickness so that protruded therefrom cm 3 or more, which are wound on the locking washer.
Another way - the use of anchor bolts. Anchor bolts and pins provide a more reliable fastening.
Mount anchors in reinforced belt, concrete is poured.
As to the number of pins, they have to either be equal or exceed the number of trusses; can not be to their location are the same. Anchor mounted upright, flat side.
At the end of installation pins are "covers" mauerlat beam on which the beat with a special hammer - thus defined drill holes locations. Bolted construction.
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